Частная тяга: новый этап в железнодорожных перевозках?

То, чего так долго ждали аграрии наконец-то может стать реальностью. Кабинет Министров 4 декабря 2019 года одобрил запуск проекта о допуске частных локомотивов на отдельные маршруты железной дороги общего пользования. Пока что проект только пилотный, а потому у специалистов еще есть возможность как наладить развитие частных перевозчиков в стране, отработать технические и технологические вопросы частной тяги, а также безопасность перевозок, так и вернуть все, как было. Благо, сторонников и первого, и второго подходов хватает. Для главного монополиста перевозок — Укрзалізниця основная проблема состоит в том, что введение частной тяги неизбежно. Ведь создание нормального рынка локомотивной тяги черным по белому прописано в соглашении об Ассоциации с Евросоюзом. Но сможет ли Укрзалізниця быть конкурентом частникам? Ведь ни для кого не секрет, что практически весь существующий парк устарел, и абсолютно не справляется с задачами и оборотностю зерновозов, особенно в сезон отправки зерна, когда каждая минута на вес золота. Исходя из данных самой железной дороги, в эксплуатационном парке УЗ 249 тепловозов и 746 маневровых тепловоза, износ которых — 100%.

С электровозами тоже плачевно — в УЗ 992 электровоза, износ которых составляет 92%.Объективно тяговый подвижной состав УЗ не сможет конкурировать с частным. При этом, в короткий период времени УЗ не способна его обновить — якобы нет денег. В УЗ уже подсчитали, что для полного обновления тягового состава монополисту перевозок необходимо не менее 215 млрд грн.

Еще одна проблема с которой сталкивается УЗ и очевидно новые перевозчики. Согласно данным УЗ, лишь 1/3 путей (а это более 7,56 тыс. км) рентабельны, а все остальные —  это чистый убыток. Соответственно, если на эти пути поставятчастную тягу УЗ потеряет большой кусок прибыли.

И все же бизнес настаивает на том, что с введением частной тяги дальше тянуть нельзя. Что это даст аграриям? Я считаю, что после введения частной тяги станет возможно своевременно и в полном объеме вывозить весь урожай. О решении логистического коллапса сектор говорил власти не раз, но все же есть ряд проблем. К тому же пока не совсем ясно, как будет действовать частная тяга, на каких маршрутах, и не получит в конечном результате Украина 5 крупнейших компаний, которые станут некими монополистами частной тяги, а-ля конкуренты УЗ? Но есть еще одна проблема со звездочкой, которую старательно замалчивают чиновники. Кроме пилотного проекта с частной тягой власть успела в этом году ввести запрет на ввоз б/у вагонов из России. Идея в принципе хорошая, однако импорт вагонов может не прекратиться. Просто после ее введения запрета российские вагоны пойдут через Беларусь, а потому стоит налаживать свое производство и перестать наконец постоянно зависеть от импорта из РФ. В любом случае, на это еще есть время — специалисты утверждают, что для того, чтобы частная тяга в стране более или менее эффективно заработала понадобиться от 2 до 5 лет системной работы.

Олег Кияшко — основатель и совладелец Агроинвест Холдинга

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    BIMM (British & Irish Modern Music Institute)
    The music industry in miniature .Britain’s most prestigious school of contemporary music. It teaches not only how to play a musical instrument well, but also how to interact with the industry. Among the directions — vocals, playing instruments, music business, production and songwriting (it is taught, for a moment, vocalist Lamb).

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